Saturday, August 15, 2015

From the town square, to the edge of town, to the prison cell and the ghetto...

The spacial arrangements and social psychology 
of white supremacy
Across the three systems of control (slavery, Jim Crow/segregation, and criminalization), the way that white denial has evolved is connected both to spacial arrangements and to the social psychology of how each racial system of control views the humanity of black people.

Under slavery the racial order allowed whites to live closely with blacks and commit open acts of terror and torture because the dominant order classed blacks (and by extension other communities considered "black" by the white power structure) as non-human property. 

Under segregation the racial order pushed blacks (and by extension other communities considered "black" by the white power structure) to the margins both physically and psychologically in the white mind. Blacks were seen as human, but as inferior and therefore deserving of being locked by segregation into a sub-caste status. Whites policed the borders of white and black spaces. Attempts made by blacks to challenge the physical nature of segregation and thus the psychological order of inferiority were met with racial violence.  

Today we have a racial order that ascribes criminality to blackness and at the same time insists that we live in a post-racial color blind space. The dominant discourse is that we are equal, but the racial order ascribes criminality to blackness and by extension to other people of color. In order for whites to believe this racial narrative, the violence of the racial social order is even further removed from white consciousness in ghetto spaces and behind prison walls. This allows for the psychology of white denial. If we are actually all "equal", whites must either hide the new form of racial violence (behind prison walls) or justify it based on the perceived "criminality" of blackness (ie, they did it to themselves) or code words for blackness.

When I use the term "racial order", I mean the social narrative which has created white supremacy through history. With this in mind, my basic observation was that as the oppressed have been more "humanized" on paper on the one hand, white supremacist thinking and continuing structural racism has pushed racial violence further and further into hidden spaces and at the same time created different psychological spaces that allows whites to "blame" structural violence on deficiency in black people (from non-human, to inferior human, to criminal human).   

Each system uses white supremacy to frame the racial order in a slightly different way and therefore where the violence takes place is different (from the town square, to the edge of town, to the prison cell and the ghetto). Each system justifies racial violence and a racialized social order, but does it in a slightly different way which alters where it takes place. It also creates different forms of white denial. 

Friday, August 14, 2015

Multiplication is for White People Meeting #4

Sadly our time together as an amazing intellectual think-tank for racial justice in education is coming to a close.  Meeting #4 took place on Wednesday and the conversation was hotter than ever.  We touched on issues from anger at the corporate reform movement to testing to project-based learning to talking with our colleagues about the importance of recognizing white privilege and racial-bias in every aspect of educating children.  Whew! It was intense.

Thank you to all who participated.  A shout out to Jason Javier-Watson who came to every single meeting!  And another shout out to Tomika, Delilah and Sheila for facilitation.  And finally a shout out to everyone who brought snacks because they were so tasty.

Attached are a couple pictures from the last meeting and a mind map that illustrates some of the things we created.  Please email me if you would like to protest photos of you being posted.  I will take it down.  (Just FYI, mind-mapping is something I use with my students which is especially great for doodlers, but it takes a little training to help them get and connect all the main points. The end result is always powerful.)

Be sure to read the Next Steps part of the email you received.  Thanks!


Thanks Jessica Shupik and Tomika's Daughter for taking photos!

Sunday, August 9, 2015

Multiplication is for White People Meeting #3

During our third meeting we began to dive deeper into the text and make connections with our own classroom experience. Some of the prevalent themes throughout our meeting were the absence of teachers of color, white privilege, making authentic connections with students and critical thinking in the classroom. Throughout the third section of the book, Delpit identifies the massive failure in test prep for standardized testing. Delpit states “Some instructional approaches focused solely on repetition of decontextualized bits may “work” temporarily to raise test scores for children in urban settings, but if the children’s minds are not engaged, then the programs are failures”.  We began to discuss failures and successes in our classrooms. Some teachers spoke of thematic units in their classroom in which they incorporate the Common Core State Standards while engaging students in authentic learning. Others admitted that our focus on test preparation made our classrooms one of the environments that the author warned against.

Our discussion then moved to encouraging critical thinking and authentic learning from our students. I was deeply moved and troubled when I posed the question “How are we supposed to engage our students in critical thinking when we as educators aren’t encouraged to be critical thinkers?”  Prior to this meeting I had a discussion with a veteran teacher who recently retired. One of her major concerns was the focus of standardized testing and the top-down control of her teaching practice. As an educator, she felt stifled by the major erroneous changes that were made to her classroom instruction. The veteran teachers of color who are being pushed out of the classroom and the current teachers who are constant targets of attack and harassment dishearten me. I am troubled by the lack of respect for all educators and structural racism that is a constant slap in the face. In many ways I am feeling that same animosity. Delpit states, “Only those who are authentically and critically literate can become the independently thinking citizens required for any society’s evolution”.  This new school year will bring more control over teacher instruction and less value in teacher creativity. The dilemma is how to navigate in a system that seems to destroy the natural talents that educators bring to the classroom. Based on the text, the group suggested the importance of teacher collaboration to find your voice. The WE & TAG Summer Book Groups are the perfect opportunity to collaborate with other educators.

Tuesday, August 4, 2015

Multiplication is for White People Meeting #2

Meeting # 2 Sheila's Mind Map of our discussion based on Sections 1 & 2

Building Critical Context: Responding to a definition of Structural Racism

Thursday, July 30, 2015

What's The New Jim Crow?

What do slavery, Jim Crow, and mass incarceration
have in common?

Participants in the The New Jim Crow book group explored this question in small groups at tonight's meeting.

Want to know more?  Watch Bill Moyers' interview with author Michelle Alexander ...then join the book group for the next session on August 13!

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Teaching to Transgress 3rd Meeting Highlights

Hello everyone! We just wrapped up a successful meeting today with some new faces and old. :) Today, we caught up with chapters 7-10...from chapter 7 thinking about the disconnect that occurs from white female racism and black female response, where black feminists struggle to be heard for being dismissed as "too angry" (p. 103). We wondered what brings about race consciousness in some white people to confront their racism and move forward while others remain people go through the "5 stages of grief", reacting with denial, anger, depression, bargaining, acceptance. Chapter 10 being a very meaty chapter, we discussed how structural racism affects classroom instruction. Where does the teacher stand in the classroom? What is the attitude toward student voice? What kind of teaching is respected and admired by our coworkers and admin? We wrapped up with some questions to continue considering: 1) How can we "examine possibilities for transforming internalized anger into constructive, self-affirming energy we can use effectively"? (p. 109) 2) How do we open up conversations about race among white people and help them see the importance of doing so? 3) How do we build more intersectionality in the conversation about race, class, and politics? Please join us as we bring our summer reading to a close with our last meeting on Wednesday, August 12th at 11:00 AM to cover chapters 11-14!! Ismael has generously offered his house as our next venue...more details to come in the next reminder for directions. Cheers, Elizabeth, Pamela & Shira

Monday, July 27, 2015

Dog Whistle Politics

Join the newly-formed book group for Dog Whistle Politics: How Coded Racial Appeals Have Reinvented Racism and Wrecked the Middle Class by Ian Haney Lopez.

The group will meet one time only on Tuesday, August 25 from 5-6:30pm

If you want to join the group and be added to the googlegroup discussion, email (You will receive an email with the location once you register for the book group.)
Here's a link to Ian Haney Lopez's interview with Bill Moyers to get you excited:

Sunday, July 26, 2015

Why Are All The Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?: Parts II and III Discussion, Week Two.

Why Are All The Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?
Parts II and III Discussion group, week two.

Some general discussion at the start led to comments about the rise of hate groups in America, as stated by Southern Poverty Law Center, and mention of their great resources for teachers and others. Also, mention of thoughtless comments by folks, like, “ You don’t act Black,” as if that were a compliment. 

Appreciated segment about “White” identity, people feeling uncomfortable talking about race. Do not want to offend. Feel awkward, uncomfortable. Antiracist conversations are needed. Understanding of “White” privilege, with- out guilt, which is not productive or proactive. Action needed, not wallowing. Courageous Conversations by Greg Singleton, was recommended. Also, I, Racist, an article:

Important to have conversations across difference, and to be authentic self, to really root out problems and resolve some things. Uncomfortable is needed, dissonance, for example, creates growth. Yet, too uncomfortable shuts one down. So, all need to be able to be true to selves, stow the guilt and hostility, and have the productive conversations. 

Identity Molecule or Who Are You activity explained. Briefly: everyone in group gets 5-6 cards. On the cards are written each person’s race, sex, for example, and two blank they fill in for selves of something that is essential to their identity. One by one each person is asked to give up a card that is not as essential to one’s identity. In mixed race groups, it is found that “Black” people hold onto that card at end and “White” people give it up immediately. Take A Step activity: all begin on a line and move forward if experienced this or that, suggested by leader. Soon apparent what one has had in life. Affirmative Action is controversial, and many feel they didn’t get a leg up either, etc, but awareness activities and conversations prove “White” privilege even when really hard to believe or see. It is difficult for folks to see beyond their own eyes.
The dominant group, the norm, in society is devoted to keeping this status quo. So much societal energy is put forth, and media supports it.

Attempted to converse about one thing you would erase from human legacy if could. Kathy brought up fact about previous discussion of integral part of who we are. So, for example, it sounds good to us that we would remove the enslavement period from history, if we could, but what would that mean? Being “Black” in America, what does it mean, and from whose perspective would we erase that history? It would ease “White” guilt, but it is part of the identity of “Black” people. Thought provoking idea.

Also, what enslavement period would we choose? There has been slavery for all time and what would it change? The fact of rising on the back of someone else would emerge some other way. Money is at the heart of evil, inherent in human condition. 

However, many, including our youth, want to know what to do about it. Rise in dystopia stories with hopeful endings. How do we right society? The children want a say in this. Important to have conversations in our classrooms and to share battles won, the hope, the actions that can be taken. Mass movement, unions, achievement stories do exist and must be shared.

Discussion was had on charter schools and public schools. Lots of talk about Black History Month. So limiting. Some fear that charter schools are detrimental to the disenfranchised of our city, yet they are being sold the idea that these schools are the way to get noticed in the curriculum. Our public schools do need a serious revamping, but not a disbandment. The students do need the space to freely talk about their identity and issues. Could be done within the school, as was mentioned by Dr. Tatum, and be supported to succeed. We need role models, “Black” staff. There are increasing roadblocks to this in our schools and this must be dealt with. (A reason why charters are on the rise.)

Deb mentioned, “We don’t need anther hero.” True enough. Our students need to be learning the history of our people, not the same names over and over, and limited to that and only those few folks and to the month of February!

Help the students know we are all the movement. Help them spot racism. Raise awareness through books, talk, actions and role modeling. Show them how to make the connections.

Activism can be had in classrooms, such as service learning. Groups like Need In Deed help with this. Also, Teaching Tolerance from The Southern Poverty Law Center.

What does it mean to protect our children? Do we keep silent? If they are hearing about it in the news, or on the streets, then conversation would protect them, help ease the fears. Needs to be constructive talk, with ways to act upon the information. This can be quite sensitive, so must be handled with care in each situation. For starters, though, don’t see it as you teaching. Rather, starting the conversation. Critical conversations in your classroom. Could use articles or books as a stepping stone. It matters who is telling the story. “Was that a riot or a protest?” Identify bias, for example, use perspective, situate in time and place, from whose point of view, use different points of view on same topic. Example: use article from Inquirer and Tribune and compare and contrast. (How very P.S.S.A. and Common Core of us!) Connect with other writing, use pocket activity. (artifacts)

So many assumptions, judgmental attitudes, bigotry. The society has a lot of work to do!

Saturday, July 25, 2015

Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement - Session Two

Notes from Kathleen:

Are we in a historical “moment”?  What moment are we in?  Does it matter? 

The Ella Baker book group had a lively second discussion in Center City. We started with a paired discussion of the question, “What were early moments of your own politicization?” One group member came to realize the centrality of important relationships, especially with those who were different from her, in her coming to see injustices.  This idea of relationships is a central theme in Baker’s work. 

Mapping Baker’s Theory of Change

We “chalk talked” Baker’s Theory of Change, and kept our chart in the center of our circle for the remainder of the discussion.

Themes of our discussion included: 

What makes a leader?  What was Baker’s process for building local, grassroots leaders? One way was sending local leaders to national conferences and workshops to “boost their confidence as organizers and give them intellectual perspectives and tactical ammunition for the struggles they were engaged in” (Ransby, 2003). 

How can we work within, outside, and around institutions to make social change? Baker redefined her work in the NAACP by building grassroots movements, rather than simply collecting membership dues.  She also held other voluntary leadership positions in addition to her paid work with the NAACP.  

What makes a movement or action successful or not?  For example, was the Occupy Movement successful?  What came out of it?  What had happened in the years prior to the Montgomery Bus Boycott that led to its eventual success? 

In what ways are we building relationships and responding to community needs at the local level?  In what ways do these local actions connect to larger collective struggles? Our group described instances of ways that they connect with neighbors and communities around local concerns, such as fish fries to raise bail or community gardens projects initiated by block captains. 

Are organizers and activists today running on a hamster wheel?  Or are we engaging in the long hard work that happens during the decades before a major social movement gains force?  

Are we in “a moment”? What moment are we in?  Does it matter?           

As a group, we grappled with where we see ourselves historically in terms of a movement for racial justice.  There was general agreement that something important is happening, with mass uprisings in response to police violence gaining national media attention (albeit skewed), “Black Lives Matter” entering the national lexicon, and local organizers coming together in ways they haven’t before.  But, are we on the brink of a watershed moment that will lead to large scale political change? 

As our time came to a close, this is the question with which we grappled. 

One group member shared her memories of the response to the events surrounding Rodney King and the insight that it will be a good sign when the protests are in response to the violence and not in response to the non-indictments and acquittals.  Until there’s mass movement in response to the police violence, it shows that there is still a level of trust in the system. Right now, the movement is showing the Black deaths matter, she said, but there needs to be a shift towards truly valuing Black lives.  

As I left, I thought about the response to the killing of Freddie Gray and felt some degree of hope.

And in the days since our discussion, I’ve reflected on the work of the Caucus of Working Educators (WE) over the past year and become excited by the parallels that I’ve seen between Baker’s work and the work of WE:  Building relationships.  Growing local leaders.  Responding to the immediate needs of the people.  Problem solving around community problems, rather than collecting membership dues.  Building relationships by talking to each other. This is the stuff of a movement.  And this is the moment that we’re in.     
Links to resources that came up in our discussion: 

Showing Up for Racial Justice (organization):
Through community organizing, mobilizing and education, SURJ moves White people to act as part of a multi-racial majority for justice with passion and accountability.

I’ve Got the Light of Freedom (book):
Using wide-ranging archival work and extensive interviews with movement participants, Charles Payne uncovers a chapter of American social history forged locally, in places like Greenwood, Mississippi, where countless unsung African Americans risked their lives for the freedom struggle. (Zinn Education Project)

The Movement for Black Lives Convening:
Hundreds of Black freedom fighters from around the country will come together for the inaugural Movement for Black Lives Convening in Cleveland, OH, from Friday July 24 to Sunday July 26th, 2015.This historic event comes at a pivotal time for the growing movement for Black lives in the United States.

 #BlackLivesMatter: The birth of a new civil rights movement (article):
This recent article in The Guardian traces the #BlackLivesMatter movement and contends with questions about leadership and the current historical moment, which our group grappled with together.   

Links to Ella Baker’s Words:

Bigger Than a Hamburger (writing):
“Bigger Than a Hamburger” is one of the few public written documents by Baker, and one of the best known.  This short piece has has powerful insight on the importance of autonomous youth leadership.   

The Bronx Slave Market
Co-written in 1935 by Ella Baker and Marvel Cooke, this article, first published in the white-owned the Crisis, exposed the “humiliating experiences of black domestic workers who huddled together on designated street corners in the early morning hours, waiting for white middle-class women to look them over and choose a lucky one to hire for the day” (Ransby, 2003).   

Audio of Baker (still images and speech clips):
It’s not easy to get audio or video of Ella speaking, but this is a short video with some audio clips of her speaking. 


Tuesday, July 21, 2015

bell hooks and Teaching Reality...

While reading I thought of a very powerful Ted Talk given by Christopher Edmin on reality pedagogy that speaks very much to how hooks' work relates to our work in our classrooms that are not in a university setting, how teaching should bring in the reality we live in, how teaching must include authentic student voice through 5 C's--Co-generative dialogue, Co-teaching, Cosmopolitanism, Context, and Content. Watch here.

Monday, July 20, 2015

Multiplication is For White People

First Meeting Discussion Summary
(Editors Note: Next Meeting! Wednesday, July 29th, 6:15-7:45pm- it's never too late to join in. No reading required, though it may help!)

We mostly discussed the introduction to the book "Yes, Diane. I'm still Angry" and posed the question to the group, "Are You Angry?" and connected it to the Helen Gym's outcry "If you're not angry, you're not paying attention!"

Frustration over how the public, who engages in teacher-blaming, doesn't actually understand our ANGER and how it comes from passion.

Anger about the position teachers are put in when working in high-needs schools, when "Caring for" over-takes the balance with "Instruction of" children.

Importance of being a "cultural ally" and finding points of solidarity with students who don't look like us. Also mentioned was Delpit's (and others) debunking of Ruby Payne's "Culture of Poverty" backed by old and recent research that supported childhood development before-school-age is comparable between white and African American children. But we discussed that Factors of Poverty cannot be eliminated from the equation of how students perform in school, and branched into a short thread about school culture and climate.

Disgust over the "good school and bad school" labels and how teachers get praised when they have finally "climbed their way into a good school." Also charter schools were mentioned briefly in this thread.

Awareness of being different from the student population and observing teachers who some how achieved a level of "solidarity" with the students for a variety of reasons: same-race, gender, rapport, experience etc..

Questions about whether teachers are products of "lack of cultural awareness, cultural responsiveness" or "by-products of a structurally-racist system"?

Shared the definition of "Structural Racism" from ItAG:

According to Lawrence and Keleher (2004) Structural Racism is the normalization and legitimization of an array of entrenched dynamics – historical, cultural, institutional and interpersonal – that advantage whites while producing cumulative and chronic adverse outcomes for people of color which reinforce existent racially developed societal structures. It identifies dimensions of our history and culture that have allowed privileges associated with “whiteness” and disadvantages associated with “color” to endure and adapt over time. This definition reflects the distribution of material and symbolic advantage and disadvantage along racial lines while acknowledging the realignment of socio-political institutions developed throughout time to maintain continuity of racialized power systems.

Citation: Lawrence, K., & Keleher, T. (2004). Chronic Disparity: Strong and Pervasive Evidence of Racial Inequalities/POVERTY OUTCOMES/Structural Racism. Lecture presented at Race and Public Policy Conference in Race Forward: The Center for Racial Justice Innovation., Berkeley.

Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?- Meeting 1

(NOTE: Next Meeting- July 22, 6-8, at Mugshots Coffee- it's never too late to join in!)

We had our first meeting this evening. It was a rich conversation about an emotional and difficult topic. We divided the conversation into parts, based on the focus points previously given for the introductions and Part One of the book. 

First Impressions:
Want to know how to have these hard conversations, with kids and adults. 
The definitions are helpful to further conversation. Use of words like racism, sexism. Definitions are eye-opening. 
Did not see racism as child. 
Though a book written in 1997, still timely. Sad, true, and pertinent to our reading.
Connection to Richard Wright. Finding identity, adolescence. Helped to understand our own identity building from our youth. Understanding more about need for self selected groupings to find identity. 
Perspective of “white” adolescent: personal experience of hurt and loss as “White” person when “Black” friends do separate in teen years, and did not understand. We expect “Black” people to accommodate us so we don’t feel uncomfortable. (Kathy) All agreed. Notice ways people congregate. “Blacks” have a cohesiveness, especially in a predominantly “white” situation, like our schools or staff meetings. Will it ever get better? 
Code terms in mixed groups of secret, segregated meetings. 
Still have lots of “White” identity work to do. 
Who has power to affect change? Teachers! Identify, verbalize, speak up. 
Twenty years ago discussions were heavy laden with angst. “White” folks crying and “Black” folks questioning, with annoyance, “From what well are you crying?” and stating,  “We’re done crying.”  
Hard to know what to do with outrage felt when others don’t get it. 
After reading book my lens changed. So much is now viewed with. “Where are all the “Black” people? In a room one is in, a meeting, on the screens, in advertisements, etc. Transformative ideas, much more aware, pay attention to it, speak up about it. Kids need insights. Can self identify with one’s own “other.” For example, the need for affinity groups, as in women only, for example. 
Dr. Tatum states the distinction between racism and prejudice or bias or bigotry. She says women can’t be sexist, “Blacks” can’t be racist. Racism is reserved for those in power. Systematic power, as Deb B. and Terry G. point out. It can be supported by anyone, but one needs the power of the system in place to actually be racist. (or sexist, or whatever) Discussion ensued on this topic, because not all are fully grasping this particular nuance.

Who Are You, Self Identity
There was a mixture of responses to this sub-topic. Some mentioned not having a strong sense of background or heritage. Youth lacked stories of past. Race, culture, religion, etc. not given much credence. Young adulthood, politics of day, news, etc. gave rise to an awareness. 
Others mentioned a stronger definition of heritage as children. Aware of familial culture. Racial identity and awareness of folks who are “Black” came later. Seen as source of tension: suddenly losing friends, parents disapproving, etc. High School was a time of awareness: politics, Black Power, separate grouping, tension, race riots, etc. A time of becoming radicalized, awareness grew, political activity became important. Realization of importance to confront assumptions. Could see that friends not treated the same way. Saw (see) teaching as a political stance. Felt many talk a good game, but reality proved otherwise. Unacceptable to us. 
Some had personal experiences, as well. “Are Italians Really White?, antisemitism, homophobia, etc. Saw acceptance, with a line. As in, “Oh, sure, Blacks are fine, but not as your boyfriend.” Or, “They have rights, but that Black Lives Matter business is not okay.” 
Often heard and hear folks contend their acceptance, their lacking prejudice, bigotry and racist potential because they have “Black” friends, or a “Black” relative, or whatever. However, that does not preclude feelings nor actions.
 One wonders where is the anger and backlash. Answer: it is internalized. Hypertension, strokes, etc. high prevalence in “Black” communities. Mention of theory that ADHD could be PTSD in many. So much anger being swallowed. 
So many are still so unaware. They think all is fine, no more racism. They keep in their bubble because it is safe and works for them.They are comfortable. Some are seeking to know more. We want the awareness, the information. We want to push back. Need to be aware of privilege that comes with certain identity. 

Memories, early awareness of difference, bigotry, etc.
 Kindergarten, seeing children of color treated harshly. 
Young child constantly hearing antisemitic remarks from friend’s grandma. 
In grade six, losing friendship when “Black” child separated from her. 
Young adult in workshops for social justice. 
Preschool and kindergarten: how the one Chinese student was not included or befriended. 
High School race riots.
As young teacher hearing comments of students of their reaction to other’s behavior. “That woman thinks we are a wolf pack.”
College experience of being ignored in a restaurant and realizing that is the common experience of people of color. 
All of these situations, and the many more that occur throughout our lives, make us so aware of what “Black” youth must go through to protect themselves, to stay aware, the venom they feel around them. Feeling invisible: not mentioned, not seen in media images, not noticed when needing service, etc. Even in animated films, so few people of color, and they don’t even have to pay someone to perform! Just color it in! What assumptions are being made, for instance, when a “Black” person enters a room of “White” folk.  Or, visa versa. Many of us rethought job changes or moves or whatever because the area was not diverse. “Black” people are behind the scenes, not visible. 

Definitions, agree, disagree, etc.
Found helpful. 
Generations are perpetuating the trouble. Need to talk about it, not cover it up or brush it aside from fear or ignorance or a comfort zone. 
Racism is systematic. Power behind it. Acting on the bias, bringing it to the forefront. So difficult, still. All of these years of oppression, history of wrongdoing to Native Americans, Holocaust victims, discrimination throughout history, and we are still asking what are these words. 
Tokenism, people think they have a trump card. “See, I am not racist.” Any individual is capable of bigotry, but racism is the enacting of that prejudice and based on a power structure within our society. Only whites benefit from racism structure. Though, of course, no one really benefits from such a society. Those oppressed can sabotage their own rise. Women raise their sons to be sexist. So internalized. It must be interrupted.

How do you interrupt racism in your life, in your work?
Power as a parent, teacher. Do not laugh at jokes, and speak up. “ Do not presume it is okay to make that joke in front of me. Thank you.” 
Teach history from point of view of all, not just the power group. 
Books with images of varying groups of folks. 
Invite parents in to discuss their contribution to the world, whatever it may be for them. Have the hard conversations.
 Try to support the academic growth of all, with attention to those struggling from the get go. Continue to work to close the gap. Support for the students struggling. AVID, for example, is a program that helps. Teach folks how to learn, how to get in certain circles, etc.  
Use social media to present a view, using the language, opening the conversation. 
Look closely at the biases, your own and others’. Be vigilant to be aware of what you still do that actually counters what you truly believe. Be mindful, particularly of where you are not interrupting the bias. 
Mostly, we hope the rest of the book spurs ideas to interrupt racism more and more.